Functional Neurological Disorder (FND)

FND is a condition affecting the functioning of the nervous system and transmission of signals between the brain and the body. It can sometimes be difficult to understand the condition, as patients with FND do not have damage to the nervous system which would show up on a scan. If you imagine a computer system that is not working properly due to software problems – you would not see any abnormalities in the components when opening the computer up to diagnose the problem – this is similar with diagnostic testing in FND and in general is not well understood.

What causes FND?

​The exact cause of FND is still not known. There are many reasons why an individual is more predisposed to FND. Some factors to consider are:

  • Predisposing Factors: started before the symptoms occurred
  • Precipitating or Triggering Factors: things that happened at the time the symptoms started
  • Perpetuating Factors: what happened after the symptoms started

These factors can be:

  • Biological (genetics etc.)
  • Psychological (stress, worrying)
  • Social: problems in school/ work etc.

Very often people with FND did not have any predisposing factors. There is therefore no definitive rule as to who can get FND.

The graph below presents an example of how the factors listed above can be relevant in the progression of FND.


Symptoms of FND:

Symptoms vary from person to person, often involving more than one specific symptom. People with FND might present with:

  • Weakness
  • Seizures
  • Altered sensation
  • Many many more…

More comprehensive list available on:

How can physiotherapy help?

  • Support on gradual increase in physical activity
  • Goal setting
  • Strength and conditioning
  • Gait retraining
  • Support on return to daily activities
  • Help prevent secondary complications

Treatment for FND:

  • Physiotherapy
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Speech Therapy
  • Pyschological Therapy
  • Symptoms specific treatment

What can physiotherapists in Nicole Lavin Neurorehab offer to the patient?

  • Detailed assessment
  • One on one treatment with experienced therapist in the clinic, home or any preferred location. We would work towards individual goals, provide you advice and work alongside other healthcare professionals involved in individual’s care.
  • Hydrotherapy
  • Specialised equipment to aid recovery.

If you’d like to learn more about FND we recommend the website created by the Neurologist with special interest in Functional Neurological Disease  on or the FND charity website on

For more information, call us on 0113 2508833 or click the button to send a message… we will be happy to talk to you